Marble

The term "Marble" is derived from Latin word "Marmor" which itself comes from the Greek root "Marmaros" meaning thereby a shining stone.

Technically marble is a recrystallised, compact variety of metamorphosed limetone capable of taking polish. Commercially, marble is any crystalline rock composed predominantly of calcite, dolomite or serpentine, having 3-4 hardness, which can be excavated as blocks and can be sawed and takes good polish.

Amongst the building stones, marble occupies a unique position. Since time im-memorial, marble has been used in temples, mosques, palaces, monuments etc. as an ornamental and decorative stone because of its pleasing colours, attractive patterns and designs.

On the basis of mineralogical composition the marble deposits of Rajasthan can be grouped as calcite, dolomite and serpentine marble. Makrana, Serwa-Perwa, Paloda etc. are calcite whereas those of Tripura Sundari and Rajnagar are dolomite. Green marble of Keshriaji (Udaipur) and Dungarpur is serpentine marble. Babarmal marble is silicious, calcite marble.

Geographical Distribution
Rajasthan is the richest state in the country with regards to marble deposits both in quality and quantity. The state is most important centre (Mandi) of marble processing in the country with about 95% of the total processing units. Rajasthan possesses large reserves of about 1100 million tonnes (M.T) of good quality marble. The important marble deposits are :

Rajsamand : Kotri, Amet, Morwad, Agaria, Parvati, Morchana, Kelwa, Vani, Saprav Ka Guda, Thodi Nijharana, Talai, Umti, Jhanjer, Arna.

Banswara : Vithaldev, Tripura Sundari, Kotharia, Khema-Talai, Bhanwaria-Talai, Oda-Bassi, Bhimkund, Prithvipura, Paloda.

Udaipur : Babarmal, Devimata (Pink), Rikhabdev, Odwas, Masaron Ki Obri, (Green), Darauli, Tidi, Jaspura, Paduna, Manpur, Lohagarh, Sarvadi, Modi Chipala (White), Kela Kuan (Black).

Dungarpur : Sabla, Nandili-Dad (calcitic), Peeth, Manpur, Dachki, Rohanwara, Mal-Surata (Green Serpentinitic).

Bhilwara : Jahajpur, Sarankhera, Kanti, Munjras, Panchanpura, Malola, Pansel, Manohargarh, Asind, Banera, Shahpura.

Chittaurgarh : Mandal Deh.

Classification
Marble has been classified into 10 groups by Bureau of Indian Standards (Indian Standard Institute i.e. ISI) (IS 1130-1969) on the basis of colour, shade and pattern. Rajasthan is the most fortunate state where all the 10 groups specified below are occurring :

1. Plain White Marble

2. Panther Marble

3. White Veined Marble

4. Plain Black Marble

5. Black Zebra Marble

6. Green Marble

7. Pink Adanga Marble

8. Pink Marble

9. Grey Marble

10. Brown Marble

Processing of Marble
A large number of processing centres have been developed in the state at Makarana, Jaipur, Alwar, Ajmer, Udaipur, Nathdwara, Rajsamand, Morchana, Amet, Abu Road, Kishangarh, Banswara, Chittaurgarh, Sirohi etc. where more than 1100 gangsaws and 50 automatic tiling plants are in operation. A large number of tiny units are also working.

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